Suomen avantgarden ja modernismin seuran 3. seminaari aiheesta Avantgarde, tiede ja teknologia


Seminaari pidetään 29.4. 2019 Aalto-yliopiston uudessa Väre-rakennuksessa, Otakaari 14, tila F101.



9.45 Helena Sederholm: Avaus ja tervetuloa

10.00 Michael Laakasuo: Does beauty matter or mind?

Modest notes on the artsy side of designing experiments and presenting cogsci results

10.30 Tanja Tiekso:  Kokeellinen metodi taiteessa

11.00 Sirkka Knuuttila: ”Ruumiillisen mielen” kognitio: kirjallisuustieteen näkökulma kriittiseen posthumanismiin radikaalin enaktivismin valossa

  1. 30 Mauri Kaipainen: Mitä jäljellä AI- ja neurohypen jälkeen?


Kahvitauko 12 – 12.15


12.15 Antti Hautamäki: Erkki Kurenniemi, musiikin ja teknologian avantgardisti

12.45 Tomi Slotte Dufva:  Vinoutunut digitaalisuus, kokemuksellinen digitaalisuus

13.15 Liisa Välikangas:  Questions to Ask at the End of Time?

Lounas 13. 45  – 14.30

  1. 30 Irmeli Hautamäki: Tieteen rooli varhaisessa avantgardessa ja humanistinen taiteen tutkimus

15.00 Antti Majava: Orgaaninen vai suprematistinen energiamurros?

15.30 Lena Séraphin: Don Quijote –kompleksi


16.00 Seminaarin päätös


Seminaarin päätyttyä on mahdollisuus siirtyä Dipolin Lumituuli-auditorioon kuuntelemaan Alva Noën klo 16.30 alkavaa esitelmää aiheesta ”Styles of Seeing”.


Alva Noë is a writer and a philosopher living in Berkeley and New York. He works on the nature of mind and human experience. He is the author of Action in Perception (MIT Press, 2004); Out of Our Heads: Why You Are Not Your Brain and Other Lessons from the Biology of Consciousness (Farrar Straus and Giroux, 2009); Varieties of Presence (Harvard University Press, 2012); and Strange Tools: Art and Human Nature (Farrar Strauss and Giroux, 2015). His latest book is Infinite Baseball: Notes from a Philosopher at the Ballpark (Oxford University Press, 2019).

Tytus Czyżewski  – the man who wanted to try it all


Avant-garde kuva

Written by Gabriela Łukasiewicz


Tytus Czyżewski was born the 28th December, in 1880, and he died in May 1945. Czyżewski was a Polish painter, art theoretician, Futurist poet, playwright, member of the Polish Formist movement, and the Colorist movement.

tytus 1


Tytus Czyżewski was an artist with a true French spirit, always looking for and trying out something new. So it comes as no suprise that after graduating from the Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow, he travelled to Paris and learned about the artistic trends there. Being young and having no limits, made Tytus prone to the artistic atmosphere of this capital city. At that time, he was strongly influenced by Cézanne and El Greco, whose works he admired until his death.

tytus 2  tytus 3

His early works resemble Cézanne’s style, mostly in colours and themes.

However,Czyżewski never forgot Poland and his love for literature. In the back of his mind, he always remembered the reason why he got involved with art. Bullied as a child, drawing helped him to overcome the fear, to create a world in which he felt safe and sound. Back then already he was fascinated with the use of colours and after having learned the basics of Cubism (it was a year 1907, the beginning of this movement) he started to go into the different direction. Soon he came back to Cracow to share new ideas and to organise his first individual exhibition that truly had a huge impact on the Polish avant-garde artists. They saw new forms, shapes, vivid colours and completely changed perspective. Fascinated with his works, they started to imitate these new solutions. Travelling back and forth from Cracow to Paris, Czyżewski took part of many exhibitions. He compared the works he had seen, and wrote poems and notes based on what impressions they had made on him.

tytus 4

 Tytus Czyżewski: “Nude with a cat”, 1920, National Museum in Warsaw

That time of exploration and admiration was brutally interrupted by the outbreak of the First World War. Notwithstanding Czyżewski continued to write and paint. In 1917, with the brothers Zbigniew and Andrzej Pronaszko, he organized in Cracow an exhibition of Polish Expressionist works. The group later became known as the Polish Formists. Until the break-up of the Formists in 1922, he was the primary artist and theoretician of the movement as well as the joint editor of the periodical Formiści. He was also co-founder of the Polish Futurist clubs, and published Futurist-inspired “visual poetry.”

tytus 5    tytus 4b

The Polish Formists as well as the Polish Futurists completely neglected all the grammar rules. In a way it was a reference to the freedom of speech. Just like the words they used, the artists wanted to be free and they insisted on getting rid of the borders and limits. When it comes to the poems, the lack of sense and the absurdity were the ways to shock and emancipate the reader.

Undoubtedly, Tytus Czyżewski was one of the most influential Polish avant-garde artists who sadly is forgotten. His passion made him unstoppable, even in front of the drastic war. After his Futurist input, he briefly flirted with Surrealism and painted the rest of his life as a Colorist. However, for me he will always be a ‘complete’ artist – fulfilled, inspired and committed, a man who tried it all.

tytus 6        tytus 7




Tytus Czyżewski:

tytus 8


Black vertical lines

Yellow green sea

Rustle of purple

Chi chi

The scream of a monkey

Blue streaks of green

Blue yellow  purple  palm trees  cloud

The scream of a purple bird

hi hi

On strong feet it goes


Enormous green                                      eye

Bloody green eye the other one

Monkeys Chi-chi

Parrots hi hi

Green eye

Green-yellow mass

Purple around

Monkey’s heart is shaking

The mystery lets the blood out

Green eye

The palm trees rustle Rhododendron awaits

Butterflies fly

Still eye stays awake


The other one

Green eye

The fear is asleep

Monkeys Chi-chi

Parrots hi hi

Green eyes

Is it already night                is it already day

Is it a dream

Is it fear – is it hypnotism

Palm trees   Silence  Dusk

Monkeys      Butterflies  Parrots

Chi-chi hi-hi chi-chi



tytus 9


knife on an open throat and blood

green banknotes thousands

u the dog howls from pain u

give it back or I’ll kill

every night in fear of the escape

prison humid execution

a a pleasure the blood splashes

give it back or I’ll kill

i am the lord red caftan

give back give back the blood

strong banknotes thousands

give it back or I’ll kill

four soldiers under the wall

white band on the eyes

cold bullet bloodstained brain

give it back or I’ll kill


Interpretation:  The first poem ‘Eyes of the tiger’ presents typical features of the avant-garde poetry: the use of onomatopoeias, meaninglessness, negligence of the grammatical rules. However, for me, this poem is not completely nonsense. The poet presents a landscape: palm trees, sea, wild animals. He creates an impression by naming the colours and sounds; we can suppose that the whole scenery is happening during a sunset. Still, we don’t really know if it is real, because in the last part of the poem the author implies that it may be a dream. For me, this poem might describe an impressionist painting that could have fascinated Tytus Czyżewski. As we know, he liked to create his poetry on the spur of the moment, under the influence of something he saw or witnessed. That’s why it might be a painting, as well as a real scenery (since he traveled a lot) or just a dream. What’s most important, however, is the use of nouns, which allow us to vividly recreate the image – it clearly shows the impressionist inspiration that helped the poet to develop his art.

The second poem ‘Fear’ is quite different from the first one, mainly because of its theme. The image we get is not as bright and dreamy; we see red (clear reference to blood) and green (money, but it can also refer to the colour the uniforms of Polish soldiers at that time). We can hear sounds: howling, screams of prisoners, gunshots. Again, the poet uses several onomatopoeias, but his message is pretty clear: ‘give it back or I’ll kill’. Tytus Czyżewski survived both the First and the Second World War, the both of which he witnessed. He must have seen the executions he describes in the last paragraph. He was an artist, not a soldier, but I suppose he also wanted to fight for freedom of Poland. The title ‘Fear’ implies however that it was difficult, the times were horrifying, and the fear definitely had an impact on Czyżewski. In general, the war had a huge repercussion on the avant-garde artists, not only in Poland. One of the most famous examples is Pablo Picasso’s “Guernica”. Tytus Czyżewski, instead, expressed his fears and anxieties more powerfully in poems than in his painting. He was also a part of the Polish Formist and Polish Futurist movements, and with the movements he wanted to describe what he saw, but also to motivate people to fight for freedom. That’s why the repeated verse ‘give it back or I’ll kill’ is so strong. The purpose of this poem was not only to present what was happening during the war (in the impressionist manner, of course), but also to motivate others and fight in the best way a poet possibly could.

Written by Gabriela Łukasiewicz. Currently Gabriela studies Language for Business at the Department of Philology, University of Lodz, Poland. Contact: Gabriela.Łukasiewicz@op.pol


Panel entitled “Storie d’amore” in the Biennial Conference of the SIS, 2019

Il convegno biannuale della Society for Italian Studies University avrà luogo ad Edinburgh, 26-28 giugno.

Ecco il nostro contributo: una sessione sull’amore nella letteratura del fin de siècle italiano.





ORGANISER: Marja Härmänmaa, University of Turku,


  1. “Amori scapigliati” (Edwige Comoy Fusaro, Université Côte d’Azur (FR)

Preso spunto dalla constatazione che tutte le storie d’amore delle opere letterarie scapigliate narrano amori impossibili o amori mostruosi, in questo contributo cerco di chiarire quali siano gli oggetti d’amore e se di amore si tratti. Basandomi su un campione di testi di una decina di autori scapigliati, passo in rassegna le varie forme e situazioni dei cosiddetti amori, interpersonali e non, dei personaggi scapigliati e osservo le occorrenze del vocabolo “amore” e del suo campo lessicale, giungendo alla conclusione che l’unico vero e proprio amore degli scapigliati fosse probabilmente «l’amor per le imàgini», come scrisse Carlo Dossi in Amori (1887).


  1. “Genere e ‘dissonanza’ post-Unificazione: (Re)reading ‘Verista’ Love through Valisa” (Brian Zuccala, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa)

The paper builds on the cultural studies-based assumption that a literary analysis of “turn-of-the-century love” can be proficuously reworked and reworded along the lines of an investigation of fin de siècle gender dynamics and their textualisations.

Here I draw on my forthcoming Italian translation of the methodological chapter of Silvia Valisa’s monograph: Gender, Narrative and Dissonance in the Modern Italian novel (Toronto; Toronto UP, 2014), and on a forthcoming essay on Luigi Capuana’s ‘gendered’ use of Free Indirect Discourse in his ‘naturalist’ narrative (1879-1890).

The talk begins by illustrating Valisa’s comparatively underutilized model for investigating the many ways in which 19th– (and 20th-) century female character(ization)s in the Italian literary tradition generate narrative ‘dissonances’ beyond the surface of the plot and the threshold of the storyworld, at the intersection of story and narration. I then focus on Capuana’s most famous naturalist works (i.e. Giacinta 1879 and Profumo 1890), and use those as a case study to show how Valisa’s model could be used to rethink restrictive exegetic models such us, in Capuana’s case, that of female characters as ‘mere’ casi psicopatologici.


  1. “Il rimedio per l’amore decadente, ovvero l’educazione sentimentale alla Fogazzaro” (Marja Härmänmaa, Università di Turku, Finlandia)

Nella presente comunicazione si propone di analizzare le forme dell’amore in alcuni dei romanzi del cosiddetto secondo ciclo della produzione di Antoni Fogazzaro. In Piccolo mondo antico (1895), Piccolo mondo moderno (1901) e Il Santo (1906) il Vicentino aveva oltrepassato le esperienze giovanili delle prime opere e raggiunto la maturità artistica. Anche aveva chiarito le sue idee sull’amore e sul suo significato per l’individuo e per la società, nonché sul ruolo dello scrittore e del romanzo. Quindi, insieme al sentimento amoroso, si analizza il soggetto femminile e maschile di Fogazzaro cercando di individuare le motivazioni per tale rappresentazione. Finalmente, darò una interpretazione del significato del tema amoroso in questi romanzi di indubbia rilevanza nell’ambito del decadentismo italiano.


  1. “Gli amori futuristi” (Barbara Meazzi, Université Côte d’Azur, France)

Numerosi sono gli scritti che il futurismo dedica all’amore, e il “manuale” che Marinetti pubblica nel 1917, Come si seducono le donne, è solo uno tra i più significativi e noti esempi. Emilio Settimelli nel 1918 dà alle stampe il suo Nuovo modo d’amaree, come molti alti futuristi, produce alcune novelle dedicate all’amore nell’ambito delle quali diffondere le idee del futurismo. Bruno Corra, senz’altro tra i più prolifici scrittori di romanzi “rosa futurista”, addirittura pubblica una quadrilogia sul nuovo modo d’amare, composta da Io ti amo, Perché ho ucciso mia moglie, Santa Messalina, La famiglia innamorata. Nel 1922 Corra pubblica un curioso romanzo vagamente autobiografico, intitolato Bevitori di sangue, ambientato tra il 1919 e il 1921: mentre gli scioperi nelle fabbriche infiammano il paese e mentre si consuma a Fiume l’impresa di D’Annunzio, si raccontano le vicende politiche e sentimentali di vari personaggi, un giornalista, una scrittrice di romanzi d’amore, artisti (tra cui un pittore rimasto incinto), intellettuali, politici. Nel corso del mio intervento, analizzerò i nuovi (o presunti tali) modi d’amare e gli amori para-futuristi tratteggiati da Corra due anni prima della sua rottura con il futurismo e Marinetti.

Apollinaire in Polish – Apollinaire po polsku

Avant-garde kuva


Some of Apollinaire’s poems translated by Anna Pardel (student of Information Science at the University of Łódź, Poland) in the AVANT-GARDE: AN INDRODUCTION workshop, organized by Dr. Marja Härmänmaa in spring 2019 at the University of Łódź, Faculty of Philology.


Tags: Apollinaire, poetry, avant-garde, poems in Polish, translations, art from the student’s point of view, modern art

Tags: Apollinaire, poezja, avant-garde, poematy w polskim tłumaczeniu, sztuka oczami studentów, sztuka współczesna


                  The Mirabeau Bridge

(Alcools (1913): Le Pont Mirabeau)


Under the Mirabeau flows the Seine

And our amours

Shall I remember it again

Joy always followed after Pain

                       Comes the night sounds the hour

                       The days go by I endure

Hand in hand rest face to face

While underneath

The bridge of our arms there races

So weary a wave of eternal gazes

                        Comes the night sounds the hour

                        The days go by I endure

Love vanishes like the water’s flow

Love vanishes

How life is slow

And how Hope lives blow by blow

                         Comes the night sounds the hour

                         The days go by I endure

Let the hour pass the day the same

Time past returns

Nor love again

Under the Mirabeau flows the Seine

                         Comes the night sounds the hour

                          The days go by I endure



Most Mirabeau

Pod Mirabeau płynie Sekwana

I nasza miłość

Czy powinienem ją dobrze zapamiętać

Szczęście zawsze idzie w parze z Bólem

 Nadchodzi noc znak późnej godziny

                           Dni upływają a ja cierpię

Dłoń w dłoni spoczywa twarz przy twarzy

Gdy poniżej

Most z naszych ramion przeplatających się gwałtownie

Jak leniwa fala wiecznych spojrzeń

Nadchodzi noc znak późnej godziny

                           Dni upływają a ja cierpię

Miłość przemija jak płynąca woda

Miłość przemija

Jak życie bez wyrazu

I jak Nadzieja po kolejnym zawodzie

Nadchodzi noc znak późnej godziny

                          Dni upływają a ja cierpię

Niech ta godzina przeminie tak samo jak ten dzień

Wspomnienia wracają

Ale sama miłość już nie wróci

Pod Mirabeau płynie Sekwana

Nadchodzi noc znak późnej godziny

                         Dni upływają a ja cierpię



(Alcools: Crépuscule)


Brushed by the shadows of the dead

On the grass where day expires

Columbine strips bare admires

her body in the pond instead

A charlatan of twilight formed

Boasts of the tricks to be performed

The sky without a stain unmarred

Is studded with the milk-white stars

From the boards pale Harlequin

First salutes the spectators

Sorcerers from Bohemia

Fairies sundry enchanters

Having unhooked a star

He proffers it with outstretched hand

While with his feet a hanging man

Sounds the cymbals bar by bar

The blind man rocks a pretty child

The doe with all her fauns slips by

The dwarf observes with saddened pose

How Harlequin magically grows



Otulona cieniami śmierci

Na trawie gdzie dogasa dzień

Harlequin podziwia odbijające się w stawie

swoje nagie ciało

Szarlatan zmierzchu uformowany

Szczyci się sztuczkami, które tylko czekają by je pokazać

Niebo bez skazy

Jest usiane mleczno-białymi gwiazdami

Ze sceny blada Harlequin

Najpierw salutuje widzom

Czarownikom z Bohemii

Wróżkom  rozmaitym zaklinaczom

Ściągając gwiazdę (z nieba)

Oferuje ją szerokim gestem

Kiedy zawieszony w powietrzu akrobata

Wygrywa stopami na cymbałach dźwięk za dźwiękiem

Ślepy  mężczyzna kołysze urocze dziecko

Łania prześlizguje się (obok) ze swoimi faunami

Skrzat obserwuje w zasmuconej pozie

Jak Harlequin magicznie wzrasta


The English versions of the poems are taken from here:


Anna Pardel (2019)


Calinescu, avantgarden kuolema ja “kriisin kulttuuri”


Marja Härmänmaa

Ajatus avantgarden sammumisesta, päättymisestä tai polemisoiden ilmaistuna sen kuolemasta on herättänyt ja herättää paljon keskusteluja ja on poikinut erilaisia tulkintoja.Termi ‘avantgarde’ (etujoukko) pesiytyi kirjallisuudentutkimukseen kaiketi 1500-luvulla, kun ranskalainen historioitsija Etienne Pasquier (1529-1615) ryhtyi käyttämään sotilaallista metaforaa kirjallisuuden uudistamisesta. Siitä lähtien “avantgardesta” on puhuttu taiteessa eri  merkityksissä ja yhteyksissä. Käsittelen seuraavassa Matei Calinescun käsitystä avantgardesta ja hänen vastaväitettään avantgarden kuolemalle.

Matei Calinescun klassikkoteoksen Five Faces of Modernity: Modernism, Avant-garde, Decadence, Kitsch, Postmodernism ensimmäinen painos ilmestyi vuonna 1977; teoksen viimeinen osa “On Postmodernism” on lisätty vasta toiseen painokseen, joka näki päivänvalon vuonna 1986. Calinescun lähestymistapa ismeihin on historiallinen ja erityisesti avantgarden kohdalla etymologinen. Avantgarde ei siis ole Calinesculle mikään tietty tyylisuunta tai historiallinen kausi. 1800-luvun lopun ja 1900-luvun alun niin kutsutut historialliset avantgardet (kubismi, futurism, dada, surrealismi) ovat vain yksi luku avantgarden historiassa. Jotta koko avantgarden käsitteen, kuten myös muiden ismien, kaikkea muuta kuin yksiselitteinen merkitys tulisi tässäkin yhteydessä havainnollistetuksi…

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Totalitarismin estetiikka – taide-elämä fasistisessa Italiassa vv. 1922-1943

Totalitarismin estetiikka


Tampereen Dante Alighieri-seuran kutsumana pidin esitelmän otsikkoaiheesta 26.9.2018 Tampereen pääkirjastossa Metso. Olipa miellyttävä tilaisuus, jonka kruunasi puheenjohtaja Tuija Soljan kotonaan järjestämä, mitä herkullisin iltapala. Kiitos, Tampere!

Tässä on esitelmäni PowerPoin -esitys kaikille asiasta kiinnostuneille.

Totalitarismin estetiikka Dante Tampere 9_2018

Olen myös käsitellyt fasismin taidepolitiikkaa seuraavassa suomenkielisessä artikkelissani:

Marja Härmänmaa: “Kivinen tie Rooman. Klassismin myötä- ja vastoinkäymiset Mussolinin Italiassa,” teoksessa Kivettyneet ihanteet? Klassismin nousu maailmansotien välisessä Euroopassa. Toim. Marja Härmänmaa ja Markku Mattila. Atena, Jyväskylä 2000, ss. 140-176.

Avantgarden ja politiikan moninaiset suhteet — FAM

Kliment Redko: Kapina Erika Laamanen Suomen avantgarden ja modernismin seuran vuotuinen seminaari järjestettiin 26.4. 2018 Töölön kirjastossa teemalla Avantgarde ja politiikka. Seminaarin esitelmissä ja paneelissa pohdittiin mm. mikä on ollut varhaisen, 1900-luvun alun avantgarden suhde politiikkaan, mikä niiden suhde on tänään, millä erilaisilla tavoilla nykytaide ja -kirjallisuus käsittelevät yhteiskunnallisia ongelmia ja voiko taiteella […]

via Avantgarden ja politiikan moninaiset suhteet — FAM

D’Annunzion runon “I pastori” suomennos

Centro nazionale degli studi dannunziani toimittaa antologian, jossa julkaistaan Gabriele D’Annunzion (1863-1938) runon “I pastori” käännös eri kielille.  Italian kulttuuri-instituutti pyysi minulta käännöstä suomeksi, ja tässä se on:


Syyskuu, mennään. Aika on muuttaa.
Minun paimeneni Abruzzon mailla
jättävät tanhuat ja kohti rantaa käyvät:
he laskeutuvat Adrianmerelle
villille, kuin vuorilla laitumet, vihreälle.

Pitkään ovat he juoneet lähteistä
vuorten, jotta synnyinmaan vesi
matkalaisten sydämiä lohduttaisi,
jotta jano kauas kaikkoaisi.
Uudet sauvat on tehty pähkinäpuusta.

Tasangolla he karjapolkua käyvät
(joka ruohoisena poimuilee kuin hiljainen joki)
ja ammoisia jälkiä seuraavat.
Minkä huudon se heistä päästää,
joka ensin katsoo merta väreilevää.

Pitkin rantaa kulkee eläinlauma;
ilma on liikkumaton.
Aurinko kultaa elävän villan,
kuin hiekkaa sen väri on.
Suloista on laineiden liplatus, sorkkien kopsutus…

Miksen ole kanssa mä paimenten?

Trad. Marja Härmänmaa (2018)

Aluperäinen versio löytyy muun muassa tämän linkin takaa youtubesta Gino Caiafan lausumana: Gabriele D’Annunzio: “I pastori” (1903)




In 2018 “The Problems of Literary Genres” is going to publish four volumes (3 of them concerning a selected theme):


1) – general genre issue with no specific dominant subject

Submissions to: 2018-01-31


2) culture of narcissism/exhibitionism

Exemplary topics: confession (genre) and its alternations in the participatory culture; the generality of authorship (self-publishing, social media, blogs, vlogs, etc.); autobiography and its boundaries; the magnitude of PR and marketing; publishing strategies and their role in reception, criticism and “vitality” of texts.

Submissions to: 2018-03-31



3) engaged culture/culture in danger

Exemplary topics: roles of culture and literature, but also journalism, in shaping social relations in the age of bottom-up social movements; engaged culture; engaging processes in culture; ideology in literature; (geo) policy, civic journalism, rhetoric and ideological engagement, new journalism; discourse of power; critical potential of genres such as parody or pastiche, but also novels or engagement poetry.

Submissions to: 2018-05-31



4) monstrous culture/ monsters in culture

Exemplary topics: the Gothic convention and its newest incarnations; the evolution of gothic figures of monstrosity and monstrous bodies – appropriated and appropriated bodies; Gothicism and gender and sexuality; transformation / hybridization of the Gothic genre; Gothic convention in such categories as repulsion, nostalgia, transgression; Gothic narratives – innovations and repetitions; relations between Gothicism and current socio-political context; the impact of the Gothic convention on the rhetoric of political debate; Gothic issues on the meta-level; cultural circularity of the Gothic themed media – fandoms, social media, specialist magazines.

Submissions to: 2018-08-31



Please, send the submissions electronically to

For further information, please see Editorial Guidelines.



Zagadnienia Rodzajów Literackich

The Problems of Literary Genres